Problem of alcoholism is of great social and economic significance nowadays in Ukraine, causing extremely negative influence on the society, with a tendency to a quick prevalence among all layers of society, ruinous impact on population’s health.
Alcoholism in medicinal aspect is a chronic disease, developing as a result of often, immoderate consumption of alcoholic beverages and addiction to them.
Tree stages should be distinguished in development of alcoholism.
Initial stage is characterized by manifestation of pathologic attraction to alcohol and ability to consume big doses of alcoholic beverages. In these patients asthenic syndrome growths and deepens, its basic manifestations are flaccidity, fatigue, early malaise, headaches. All mentioned leads to drop of quality of work. They have difficulties with falling asleep, their sleep is not deep, intermittent one, feeling of vigilance is absent after wakening up. Constant irritability and hot-temper, conflicts with other people develop.
Duration of the first stages on average makes up 1-6 years, depending on intensiveness of alcohol consumption. Already on the initial stage of alcoholism somato-neurologic disturbances develop: vegetative-vascular dystonia, esophagitis, gastritis, colitis, disorder of liver function, initial signs of hepatitis, pancreatitis.
Medium stage of alcoholism is characterized by increase of pathologic attraction to alcohol which is gaining irresistible, violent character. Patient already does not make attempts to fight against desire to drink, he passively submits to it. Alcohol dosages rise, patients consume alcohol practically every day, or are addicted to the bottle, alcohol withdrawal syndrome develops. Somato-neurologic disturbances are significantly marked.
All these disorders exist on the background of more sharp changes, degradation of personality, egoism grows. To obtain money to consume alcohol, familial interests, those of society and collective body at work are ignored. Mental impairments aggravate, memory, attention deteriorate. Feeling of guilty before the surrounding people is absent. All previous interests are lost, prevailing need is to drink alcoholic beverages. On this stage of alcoholism acute alcoholic psychoses appear often. Duration of this stage is 3-5 years on average.
Final stage of alcoholism is characterized by further changes and aggravation of symptoms, developed on previous stages. Somato-neurologic changes develop in all system of the organism, Nervous system, the brain in particular are affected the most. Structure of the brain cortex is impaired, brain cells die, alcoholic poly-neuropathies develop. Changes in the inner organs are manifested in fatty infiltration of myocardium, fatty degeneration of the liver, development of liver cirrhosis, disorder of urogenital function.
Manifestations of alcoholic degradation of personality are clearly marked, patient lose moral-ethic norms of behavior. Interest to the surrounding world disappears, the whole psychic activity is becoming poor. Ability to work falls, they can perform unqualified work only. These patients do not look after themselves, look dirty, badly dressed.
Speaking about alcoholism prognosis, it should be noted, that the earlier treatment is started, the more active it is performed, the wider is rehabilitative therapy, the more hope for the success is.