BASIC GROUPS OF MEDICINAL AGENTS USED IN PSYCHIATRY
Over the last 50 years psycho-pharmacotherapy gradually occupied its worthy place among other methods of treating psychic patients. At present psycho-pharmacotherapy is the most prevalent in the world method of treatment of mental patients. By the data of WHO, about one-third of adult population of the developed countries take psycho-pharmacologic drugs. This is linked not only with sufficiently high efficacy in case of moderate incidence of side-effects, but with the simplicity and flexibility of their usage.
Nowadays 3 basic classes of psychotropic drugs are distinguished: neuroleptics, anti-depressants and tranquilizers.
Neuroleptics are the vastest group of up-to-date psychotropic means. They occupy the leading place in the pharmacotherapy of patients with psychoses, including schizophrenia patients. At present time neuroleptic drugs include substances of various chemical composition. The best known and actively used include: aminazin, haloperidol, triftazin, azaleptin, rispolept, ridazin. Psychotropic effects of neuroleptics are various, but the most peculiar property of them is antipsychotic action. These drugs reduce hallucination and delusive disorders, lower affective tension, psychomotor excitation, normalize pathologically changed behavior of various genesis.
Antidepressants are considered to be agent, different in their chemical composition. Main action of antidepressants is ability to eliminate pathologically decreased mood, aggression. Up-to-date arsenal of antidepressants differs by its variety. Together with up-to-date antidepressants (selective inhibitors of reverse catch of serotonin), cipralex, remeron, laxil are actively used, as well as tri-cyclic antidepressants: amytriptilin, melipramin, clophranil.
Tranquilizers are considered to be agents, having ability to eliminate or alleviate such negative emotions as anxiety, fear, emotional tension. Up-to-date tranquilizers are the derivatives of various compounds, such as phenazepam, sibazon, elenium. Tranquilizers, as differentiated from neuroleptics do not cause emotional indifference, do not cause anti-psychotic influence, and do not cause extra-pyramidal disorders. As distinct from antidepressants, tranquilizers do not eliminate depressive disorders proper, though some agents weaken anxious and vegetative components of depression.